The energy industry has been in a state of transition for two centuries, and there is no reason to expect that this state will stop within the next century, see Figure 1. While non-renewable carbon fossil fuels made unprecedented human prosperity possible during the last 150 years, the carbon emissions (GHGs) and carbon intensity from the use of nonrenewable carbon fuels must be reduced. Carbon is the key to life as one knows it and cutting carbon use to zero is impractical. However, it is paramount that the emissions generated from the use of carbon and the carbon intensity (tons of CO2 emissions per unit of carbon consumed) must improve.
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